Advanced Technology from Xstream Technologies LLC

Asynchronous Phase Flipping (APF)

At Xstream Technologies we have invented and are further developing a series of unrelated technologies that can stand in major applications as standalone platforms by themselves or in combination with each other as a very high degree of functional complementarity is intrinsically built into them.

First, we have invented and been developing a revolutionary patent-pending signal transmission technology that we call APF, an acronym that stands for "Asynchronous Phase Flipping". APF allows a straightforward and unique encoding and decoding at the physical layer of any digital (binary or M-ary) signal that must be transmitted over any medium, preferably (but not necessarily) noisy, like e.g. wireless channels. The encoding and decoding processes (taking place respectively at the transmitter and receiver) are implemented on-the-fly by extremely simple and inexpensive techniques and methods, thereby enabling the introduction of APF technology into numerous application areas and fields, especially where the overall cost of implementation and/or ownership is of major concern.

The APF signal (i.e. the result of the APF encoding of an underlying high-speed digital information signal) is a two level (i.e. binary but not digital) signal that can be transmitted with well known and time-tested inexpensive analog methods and techniques.

The technique is called "Asynchronous", because there is no synchronicity needed over the channel with any clock that is associated with each symbol transmission. It is also called "Phase-Flipping" because of the two phases between which the APF signal is continuously "flipping" back and forth.

The reconstruction on-the-fly at the receiver of the underlying digital signal is assured with equally simple and inexpensive means.

APF technology (a) drastically reduces the cost of implementation of transmitter and receiver microelectronics while (b) tremendously increasing the SNR resilience of transmissions over noisy channels and without the necessary engaging of other traditional techniques like interleaving or error correction codes. This is not to imply that error-correction codes have lost their place in transmissions. It simply means that error correction coding will be needed or desired in less application than it now is the case. This will save bandwidth that is now used for redundant transmissions and for error-code checksum bits, etc. for useful information transmission. This is one of the value propositions of the APF technology.

With the use of APF technology, the transmission channel can be (i) a baseband transmission where the APF signal is immediately coupled onto fiber, or onto coax cable, or other bus-like structures, or on optical line-of-sight (LOS) laser-based systems, or even onto microwave systems thereby dramatically improving the performance and applicability on next-generation serdes devices, or switch fabrics, or fiberoptic communications, or (ii) it can be an RF medium where now the APF signal can extremely inexpensively and efficiently carry a simply produced RF bi-phase-modulated signal that in reality now (a) carries very high-speed digital information over traditional inexpensive analog signals (until now thought incapable of transmitting such information) (b) behaves much more robustly than alternative modulation techniques in presence of certain types of noise and (c) allows an extremely efficient coupling with RF-stage power amplifiers driving the antennas.

The drastically reduced cost of designing and building such high-performance transmitter- and receiver electronics is the second value proposition of APF technology.

APF also has a major area of applicability in consumer electronics as it allows (i) a superb and inexpensive recording and playback of digital information respectively onto and from inexpensive and (next generation) recordable media (CD-R/W, DVD, etc.) while (ii) offering an improved error performance (without error coding and waste of useful area) and (iii) a tremendously efficient reproduction of sound or video at the output stages of traditional hi-fi audio amplifiers and high-resolution video cards.

We fully intend to present aspects of this technology to appropriate standards bodies in the telecommunications and entertainment industries as an alternative to currently envisioned technologies.

If you are interested in learning more about the APF technology, please contact us.

Also please come back often to our web site, as we intend to post a series of white papers further describing the technology and its many applications.

Entropy Dilation (ED)

We have invented and been developing an encoding/decoding set of patent-pending technologies that enable the on-the-fly alteration of a baseband digital (binary of M-ary) signal in such a way that the transform signal (called the "entropy-dilated signal" or "ED-signal") can be transmitted using inexpensive analog techniques over very noisy media, like e.g. wireless, satellite, etc. in an unrecognizable form while preserving excellent SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and BER (bit-error rate) performance.

The ED techniques are based on advanced analog neural-network methods that classify all the parts of the underlying information signal onto a new mathematical space the encoding of which is then directly transmitted over the channel.

The reverse process (also known as "Entropy Contraction") is carried out on-the-fly at the receiver, where a similar analog neural network performs a recognition process that reversely maps the received (presumably corrupted by noise) ED-signal from its mathematical transform space into the familiar time domain thereby reconstructing the original underlying digital signal.

Entropy dilation has been shown by extensive simulations and modeling to faithfully reproduce signals in real time on-the-fly (under specific mathematical conditions that are known and understood and very easy to implement at will) without use of any error codes or interleavers, even when about 10% of a whole transmission is corrupted by noise.

Although ED technology works as a standalone solution, it ideally and naturally works especially well when combined with APF transmissions. The improvements are then truly remarkable on both SNR and BER aspects.

The idea is again not to fully replace the error-correction codes (ECC) that everyone is accustomed to. We simply raise the threshold of ECC introduction much higher and we affirm that ED technology enables the design and delivery of inexpensive high-performance systems that transmit and receive high-speed digital signals without ECC.

If you are interested in more information about entropy dilation and its applicability, please contact us. We intend to have a series of white papers on this technology too, so please mark this page on your browser and visit us often.

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